The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

The pelvic girdle consists of three paired bones, the ilium, ischium and pubis, which link the axial skeleton to the lower limbs. Posteriorly, the ilia articulate with the sacrum. Anteriorly, the two pubic bones are linked by the cartilaginous symphysis pubis. The ilium, ischium and pubis unite to form the acetabulum, a cup-shaped fossa which holds the head of the femur.

The femur is the long bone of the upper leg. On the lateral aspect of the upper shaft, adjacent to the head of the femur, is the greater trochanter, a large tuberosity which provides attachment for several muscles which manipulate the hip joint. Below the head of the femur, on the medial aspect of the shaft, is the lesser trochanter. At the inferior end of the shaft of the femur are the medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle which provide attachment for muscles of the upper and lower leg.

The knee joint is formed by the articulation of the femur and the tibia. Separating these two bones are the medial meniscus and lateral meniscus, which absorb forces compressing the knee joint. The anterior aspect of the knee joint is covered by the patella , which is also known as the knee cap. 

The lower leg contains two long bones, the medial tibia and the lateral fibula. Both the tibia and the fibula articulate with the talus to form the ankle joint. The talus is one of seven tarsal bones which form the foot. Inferior to the talus and forming the heel is the calcaneus. Anterior to the talus is the navicular. Anterior to the navicular are three small bones, the medial, intermedial and lateral cuneiform bones. Lateral to both the navicular and the cuneiforms, is the cuboid bone. From the cuneiforms and cuboid bone, five long bones, the metatarsals run forward to the toes. The toes, like the fingers, contain fourteen phalanges. There are two phalanges in the great toe, the hallux, and three phalanges in each of the four toes lateral to the hallux.


English - French Glossary

acetabulum: acetabulum ;  anterior superior iliac spine: épine iliaque antéro-supérieure ; calcaneus: calcanéum ; cuboid: cuboïde ; cuneiform: cunéiforme ; femur: fémur ; fibula: fibula ; greater trochanter: grand trochanter ; iliac crest: crête iliaque ; ilium: ilion ; ischium: ischion ; lateral epicondyle of femur: épicondyle latéral du fémur ; lesser trochanter: petit trochanter ; medial epicondyle of femur: épicondyle médial du fémur ; meniscus: ménisque ; metatarsal: métatarsien ; patella: patella (rotule) ; pelvis: bassin ; posterior superior iliac spine: épine iliaque postéro-supérieure ; pubis: pubis ; phalanges: phalanges ; symphysis pubis: symphyse pubienne ; talus: talus ; tarsal: tarsien ; tibia: tibia

English - Japanese Glossary

acetabulum: 寛骨臼 (kankotsukyuu); anterior superior iliac spine: 上前腸骨棘 (jouzenchoukotsukyoku); calcaneus: 踵骨 (shoukotsu); cuboid: 立方骨 (rippoukotsu); cuneiform: 楔状骨 (ketsujoukotsu); femur: 大腿骨 (daitaikotsu); fibula: 腓骨 (hikotsu); greater trochanter: 大転子 (daitenshi); iliac crest: 腸骨稜 (choukotsuryou); ilium: 腸骨 (choukotsu); ischium: 座骨 (zakotsu); lateral epicondyle: 外側上か (gaisokujouka); lateral meniscus: 外側半月 (gaisokuhangetsu); lesser trochanter: 小転子 (shoutenshi); medial epicondyle: 内側上か (naisokujouka); medial meniscus: 内側半月 (naisokuhangetsu); metatarsals: 中足骨 (chuusokukotsu); navicular: 足の舟状骨(ashinoshuujoukotsu); patella: 膝蓋骨 (shitsugaikotsu); pelvis: 骨盤 (kotsuban); posterior superior iliac spine: 上後腸骨棘 (joukouchoukotsukyoku); pubis: 恥骨 (chikotsu); phalanges: 指骨 (shikotsu); symphysis pubis: 恥骨結合 (chikotsuketsugou); talus: 距骨 (kyokotsu); tarsal: 足根骨 (shokkonkotsu); tibia 脛骨 (keikotsu)

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