The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

The pectoral girdle consists of two bones, the clavicle and the scapula. The clavicle, also called the collar bone, articulates with the sternum and the acromion process of the scapula. The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a triangular-shaped bone. The three corners of the triangle are the inferior angle, the superior angle and the glenoid fossa. The medial border of the scapula runs parallel to the spinal column from the inferior angle to the superior angle of the scapula. From the inferior angle of the scapula, the lateral border runs superior and lateral to the glenoid fossa which forms a joint with the head of the humerus. The spine of the scapula runs across the posterior surface of the scapula from the upper third of the medial border to the acromion process. On the anterior surface of the scapula, just medial to the glenoid fossa is the coracoid process which provides attachment for muscles such as the short head of the biceps brachii.

The long bone of the upper arm is the humerus. The head of the humerus fits into the glenoid fossa to form the shoulder joint. On the anterior surface of the head of the humerus are the greater tuberosity and the lesser tuberosity, which provide attachment for several muscles which manipulate the shoulder joint. Further distal, on the lateral aspect of the humerus is the deltoid tuberosity which provides attachment for the deltoid muscle. At the distal end of the humerus are two more tuberosities, the medial epicondyle and the lateral epicondyle, which provide attachment for muscles which manipulate the lower arm and wrist.

The lower arm contains two long bones, the lateral radius and the medial ulna. The head of the ulna forms a hook, the olecranon process, which fits into a recess on the posterior aspect of the humerus, the olecranon fossa. The ulna and radius run parallel to each other until they reach the wrist, where they articulate with the carpal bones.

The hand consists of eight carpal bones, 5 metacarpals and 14 phalanges. The eight carpals are arranged in a proximal and distal row of four bones each. From lateral to medial, the proximal carpals are the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform bones. The distal carpals are the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate bones. The hamate bone has a distinctive hook which can be palpated lateral to the movable pisiform. The distal carpals articulate with the five metacarpals. The metacarpals, in turn, articulate with the phalanges of the fingers. There are fourteen phalanges - three in each of the four medial fingers and two in the lateral thumb.


English - French Glossary

acromion process: acromion; capitate: capitate; carpal: carpien; clavicle: clavicule; epicondyle: epicondyle; glenoid fossa: cavité glénoïdale; greater tuberosity: grande tubérosité de l'humérus (= trochin); hamate: hamate; head of humerus: tête de l'humérus;  head of radius: tête du radius; humerus: humerus;  lesser tuberosity: petite tubérosité (= trochiter de l’humérus); lunate: lunate; metacarpal: métacarpien;  olecranon: olécrâne; pisiform: pisiforme; scaphoid: scaphoïde; scapula: omoplate; triquetrum: triquetrum; trapezium: trapeze;  trapezoid: trapézoïde; ulna: cubitus

English - Japanese Glossary

acromion process: 肩峰突起 (kenpou); capitate: 有頭骨 (yuutoukotsu); carpals: 手根骨 (shukonkotsu); clavicle: 鎖骨 (sakotsu): coracoid process: 烏口突起 (ukoutokki); deltoid tuberosity: 三角筋そめん (sankakukinsomen); glenoid fossa: 関節窩 (kansetsuka); greater tuberosity: 大結節 (daikessetsu); hamate: 有鈎骨 (yuukoukotsu); head of humerus: 上腕骨頭 (jouwankotsutou); head of radius: 橈骨頭 (toukotsutou); humerus: 上腕骨 (jouwankotsu); inferior angle: 下角 (kakaku); lateral border: 外側縁 (gaisokuen); lateral epicondyle: 外側上か (gaisokujouka); lesser tuberosity: 小結節 (shoukessetsu); lunate: 月状骨 (getsujoukotsu); medial border: 内側縁 (naisokuen); medial epicondyle: 内側上か (naisokujouka); metacarpals: 中手骨 (chuushukotsu); olecranon fossa: 肘頭窩 (chuutouka); olecranon process: 肘頭 (chuutou); phalanges: 指骨 (shikotsu); pisiform: 豆状骨 (toujoukotsu); radius: 橈骨 (toukotsu); radial tuberosity: 橈骨そめん (toukotsusomen); scaphoid: 手の舟状骨 (te no shuujoukotsu); scapula: 肩甲骨 (kenkoukotsu); spine of scapula: 肩甲棘 (kenkoukyoku); superior angle: 上角 (joukaku); triquetrum: 三角骨 (sankakukotsu); trapezium: 大菱形骨 (dairyoukeikotsu); trapezoid: 小菱形骨 (shouryoukeikotsu); ulna: 尺骨 (shakkotsu)