The Major Arteries

Arteries are those large blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart. They are often also thought of as vessels which carry oxygenated blood, although the pulmonary arteries are exceptional in that they carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. The structure of arterial walls can be quite complex, but usually the wall of the artery is thought of as being composed of three layers: an inner tunica intima, a muscular tunica media and an outer tunica adventitia (also sometimes called the tunica externa).

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body and carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to all of the organs of the body. Immediately above the aortic semilunar valve, the ascending aorta gives rise to the left and right coronary arteries which serve the tissues of the heart. From the arch of the aorta, there are three important branches: the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. The brachiocephalic artery divides into right common carotid and right subclavian arteries. The left and right common carotid arteries each divide into internal carotid and external carotid arteries. The external carotid arteries serve the outside of the skull, while the internal carotid arteries enter the cranium via the foramen lacerum and join the circle of Willis which supplies blood to the brain.

The first major branch of the subclavian artery is the vertebral artery. The left and right vertebral arteries run through the transverse processes of the sixth to the first cervical vertebrae. After rounding the lateral masses of the first cervical vertebra, the vertebral arteries enter the foramen magnum and unite to form the basilar artery which also contributes to the circle of Willis.

After giving rise to the vertebral artery, the subclavian artery passes beneath the glenohumeral joint and hence, in this region, is called the axillary artery. The axillary artery becomes the brachial artery as it continues along the humerus, and divides at the elbow to form the radial artery and ulnar artery.

Beyond the origin of the left subclavian artery, the arch of the aorta turns caudad to become the descending aorta. In the thoracic region, the thoracic aorta provides branches to the pericardium, esophagus and bronchi. Beneath the diaphragm, the abdominal aorta has numerous branches to the abdominal organs. The celiac trunk branches into the gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries to the stomach, liver and spleen, respectively. Beneath the celiac trunk, the abdominal aorta also gives rise to suprarenal, superior mesenteric, renal, spermatic or ovarian, and inferior mesenteric arteries.

At approximately the level of the lumbosacral junction, the abdominal aorta divides into left and right common iliac arteries. The common iliac arteries then divide into internal iliac arteries and external iliac arteries. The internal iliac artery serves the pelvic organs, while the external iliac artery passes beneath the inguinal ligament and becomes the femoral artery as it enters the thigh. As it passes behind the knee, the femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery which then divides into anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery.

English - French Lexicon

blood vessel: vaisseau sanguin ;ascending aorta: aorte ascendante ; aortic arch: crosse de l'aorte ; descending aorta: aorte thoracique descendante ; coronary artery: artère coronaire ;brachiocephalic artery: artère brachio-céphalique ; common carotid artery: artère carotide commune ;subclavian artery: artère sous-clavière ; vertebral artery: artère vertébral ; axillary artery: artère axillaire ;pulmonary artery: artère  pulmonaire ;thoracic aorta: aorte thoracique ;abdominal aorta: aorte abdominale ;renal artery: artère rénale ;mesenteric artery: artère mésentérique ;popliteal artery: artère poplitée


English - Japanese Lexicon

heart: 心臓 (shinzou); left atrioventricular valve: 左房室弁 (hidariboushitsuben); left ventricle: 左心室 (sashinshitsu); blood vessel: 血管 (kekkan); tunica intima: 内膜 (naimaku); tunica media: 中膜 (chuumaku); tunica externa: 外膜(gaimaku); ascending aorta: 上行大動脈 (joukoudaidoumyaku); aortic arch: 大動脈弓 (daidoumyakukyuu); descending aorta: 下行大動脈 (kakoudaidoumyaku); coronary artery: 冠状動脈 (kanjoudoumyaku): brachiocephalic artery: 腕頭動脈 (wantoudoumyaku); common carotid artery: 総頚動脈 (soukeidoumyaku); external carotid artery: 外頚動脈 (gaikeidoumyaku); internal carotid artery: 内頚動脈 (naikeidoumyaku); subclavian artery: 鎖骨下動脈 (sakotsukadoumyaku); vertebral artery: 椎骨動脈 (tsuikotsudoumyaku); axillary artery: 腋窩動脈 (ekikadoumyaku); brachial artery: 上腕動脈 (jouwandoumyaku); radial artery: 橈骨動脈 (toukotsudoumyaku); ulnar artery: 尺骨動脈 (shakkotsudoumyaku); pulmonary artery: 肺動脈 (haidoumyaku); thoracic aorta: 胸大動脈 (kyoudaidoumyaku); abdominal aorta: 腹大動脈 (fukudaidoumyaku); celiac trunk: 腹腔動脈 (fukukoudoumyaku); renal artery: 腎動脈 (jindoumyaku); mesenteric artery: 腸間膜動脈 (choukanmakudoumyaku); common iliac artery: 総腸骨動脈 (souchoukotsudoumyaku); internal iliac artery: 内腸骨動脈 (naichoukotsudoumyaku); external iliac artery: 外腸骨動脈 (gaichoukotsukoumyaku); femoral artery: 大腿動脈 (daitaidoumyaku); popliteal artery: 膝窩動脈 (shitsukadoumyaku); anterior/posterior tibial artery 前/後脛骨動脈 (zen/koukeikotsudoumyaku); dorsalis pedis artery: 足背動脈 (sokuhaidoumyaku)