The Heart and Great Vessels

The heart functions chiefly as a muscular pump for driving the blood through the vessels of the circulatory system. The heart consists of four chambers: the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle. Flow of blood from the atria into the ventricles, and from the ventricles into the pulmonary and systemic circulation is controlled by valves. The large vessels which carry blood into the atria and out of the ventricles are referred to as the great vessels.

Deoxygenated blood from the body is returned to the right atrium by the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. The superior vena cava drains the head, neck, arms and upper thorax. The inferior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from the legs, abdomen and lower thorax. As the right atrium fills with deoxygenated blood, it contracts and drives the blood through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve, also known as the right atrioventricular valve, prevents blood from flowing backwards from the right ventricle into the right atrium. Hence, when the right ventricle fills with blood and contracts, the blood is driven into the pulmonary trunk and its branches, the pulmonary arteries, towards the lungs. At the entrance to the pulmonary trunk, the pulmonary semilunar valve prevents reflux of blood into the right ventricle.

The reoxygenated blood from the lungs is returned to the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary veins. The left atrium then contracts and pumps the blood through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. The bicuspid valve, also known as the left atrioventricular valve or mitral valve, prevents blood from flowing backwards from the left ventricle into the left atrium. The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber of the heart. When the left ventricle contracts, the blood is forced through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta. The aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from refluxing from the aorta into the left ventricle. The first major branches of the aorta are the left and right coronary arteries which carry oxygenated blood to the muscle of the heart. The openings for the coronary arteries are just behind the aortic semilunar valve. Hence, disease of the aortic semilunar valve can impair the coronary circulation. Other major branches of the aorta are the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery.


English - French Lexicon

aortic arch: crosse de l'aorte ; ascending aorta: aorte ascendante ; bicuspid valve: valvule mitrale ; coronary artery: artère coronaire ; descending aorta : aorte thoracique descendante ; heart : cœur   left atrioventricular valve: valvule mitrale ; left atrium: oreillette gauche ; left ventricle: ventricule gauche ; pulmonary artery:  artère  pulmonaire ; pulmonary semilunar valve: valvule sigmoïde de l'orifice artériel pulmonaire ; pulmonary vein: veine pulmonaire ; right atrium: oreillette droite ; right atrioventricular valve: valvule tricuspide ; right ventricle: ventricule droit ; tricuspid valve: valvule tricuspide

English - Japanese Lexicon

aortic arch: 大動脈弓 (daidoumyakukyuu); aortic semilunar valve: 大動脈弁(daidoumyakuben); ascending aorta: 上行大動脈 (joukoudaidoumyaku); bicuspid valve 僧帽弁 (soubouben); brachiocephalic artery: 腕頭動脈 (wantoudoumyaku); common carotid artery: 総頸動脈 (soukeidoumyaku); coronary artery 冠状動脈 (kanjoudoumyaku); descending aorta 下行大動脈 (kakoudaidoumyaku); heart 心臓 (shinzou); inferior vena cava: 下大静脈 (kadaijoumyaku); left atrioventricular valve 左房室弁 (saboushitsuben); left atrium 左心房 (sashinbou); left ventricle 左心室 (sashinshitsu); pulmonary artery 肺動脈 (haidoumyaku); pulmonary semilunar valve 肺動脈弁 (haidoumyakuben); pulmonary vein 肺静脈 (haijoumyaku); right atrium 右心房 (ushinbou); right atrioventricular valve 右房室弁 (uboushitsuben); right ventricle 右心室 (ushinshitsu); subclavian artery: 鎖骨下動脈 (sakotsukadoumyaku); superior vena cava: 上大静脈 (joudaijoumyaku); tricuspid valve 三尖弁 (sansenben)