Synovial Joints

There are a number of systems for classifying joints, based both on their structure and function. The synovial joint is just one of these classifications, but is probably the most important from the clinical point of view.

Classically, the synovial joint is formed at the interface of two (or sometimes more) bones, and allows a relatively high degree of freedom of motion. The joint is surrounded by a joint capsule composed of tough fibrous tissue. The capsule is continuous with the periosteum of the bone entering the joint. The capsule also commonly attaches to or contains ligaments which bind the bones of the joint together. The capsule often also provides attachment for muscles which help to manipulate the joint.

The inner surface of the joint capsule is lined with synovial membrane. The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid which helps to lubricate and nourish the tissues enclosed within the joint capsule. The articulating surfaces of the bones within the joint are normally lined with articular cartilage. The articular cartilage provides a smooth surface which allows for easy movement of the joint. In some joints, such as the knee joint and the temporomandibular joint, there are additional pads of cartilage within the joint, menisci (singular: meniscus), which absorb forces and so protect the joint from damage. There may also be deposits of fat within or outside of the joint capsule to provide additional protection.

Frequently, adjacent to large synovial joints are cushions of synovial fluid which are often continuous with the synovial cavity of the joint. These bursae (singular: bursa) also act to protect the joint or tissues close to the joint. Several bursae surround the knee, and the glenohumeral joint.

English - French Glossary

acetabular joint (hip joint): articulation de la hanche;  acromioclavicular joint: articulation acromio-claviculaire; ankle: cheville; articulation (joint): articulation; atlanto-axial : axoïdo-atloïdien; atlanto-occipital: occipito-atloïdien; bursa: bourse; carpometacarpal : carpométacarpien;  facet joint (zyagapophyseal joint): articulation facettaire = facette articulaire postérieure = articulation zygapophysaire; glenohumeral : gléno-huméral; intervertebral disc: disque intervertebral;  joint capsule: capsule articulaire; knee joint: articulation du genou; ligament: ligament; meniscus: ménisque; sacroiliac: sacro-iliaque; sternoclavicular: sterno-claviculaire; synovial fluid: liquide synovial;temporomandibular joint: articulation temporo-mandibulaire

English - Japanese Glossary

acetabular joint (hip joint): 股関節 (kokansetsu), acromioclavicular joint: 肩鎖関節 (kensakansetsu); ankle mortise joint: 上足関節 (jousokukansetsu); articulation (joint): 関節 (kansetsu); atlanto-axial joint: 環軸関節 (kanjikukansetsu); atlanto-occipital joint: 環椎後頭関節 (kantsuikoutoukansetsu); bursa: 滑液嚢 (katsuekinou); carpometacarpal joint: 手根中手関節 (shukonchuushukansetsu); distal radio-ulnar joint: 下橈尺関節 (katoushakukansetsu); facet joint (zygapophyseal joint): 椎間関節 (tsuikankansetsu); glenohumeral joint: 肩甲上腕関節 (kenkoujouwankansetsu); humero-radial joint: 腕橈関節 (wantoukansetsu), humero-ulnar joint: 腕尺関節 (wanshakukansetsu); intercarpal joint: 手根間関節 (shukonkankansetsu); interphalangeal joint: 指節間関節 (shisetsukankansetsu); intervertebral disc: 椎間板 (tsuikanban); joint capsule: 関節嚢 (kansetsunou); knee joint: 膝関節 (shitsukansetsu); ligament: 靱帯 (jintai); meniscus: 半月 (hangetsu); metacarpophalangeal joint: 中手指節関節 (chuushushisetsukansetsu); metatarsophalangeal joint: 中足指節関節 (chuusokushisetsukansetsu); proximal radio-ulnar joint: 上橈尺関節 (joutoushakukansetsu); radiocarpal joint: 橈骨手根関節 (toukotsushukonkansetsu); sacroiliac joint: 仙腸関節 (senchoukansetsu); sternoclavicular joint: 胸鎖関節 (kyousakansetsu); symphysis pubis: 恥骨結合 (chikotsuketsugou); synovial fluid: 滑液 (katsueki); synovial membrane: 滑膜 (katsumaku); tarsometatarsal joint: 足根中足関節 (sokkonchuusokukansetsu); temporomandibular joint: 顎関節 (gakukansetsu)